Direct current motors Tutorial for quick and step by step DC Motors learning. Here we will discuss how and why we use it. The basic principle of dc motors. Why we use and How we use DC motors. How dc motor works. The construction of dc motors. The types of DC motors. The real life applications of DC motors.
This DC motors quick tutorial will cover all the important learning aspects of DC motors. Welcome to the Make it mech How and why to use Tutorial series. In this tutorial series you will learn a quick learning guide about all the components, Modules, Ic’s and concepts.
- How & Why to use dc motors
- Internal construction & working Principle of Dc motors
- Types of Dc motors
- How many ways to control Dc motors
- Applications of Dc motors
01: How & Why to use Dc Motors:
Dc Motor is a machine that transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy in the form of rotations. The internal structure of motor is designed in a way that when an electric energy is provided to the motor it rotates.
To generate mechanical movement the DC motors have inductors inside that produce magnetic field to generate rotations the, mechanical movements.
For Example: An inductor is placed between Magnetic forces. The repulsive and attractive forces will produce a torque.
02: DC Motors internal Structure:
Dc motors have 9 basic components inside. These have their different structure to run the system. These 9 nine internal parts that runs Dc motor are listed below:
Stator is nothing but the mechanical and outer structure of the motor. It provides the mechanical supporting and protection to the motor. The stator in the motor is an un-moving component.
Rotar is the main spinning part in the dc motors. The Rotor in dc motors consist of coil winding. It is the part which holds the coil wingdings. When the rotor is powered with DC current the magnetic field is produced. The rotor is surrounded by magnets. So the rotations are produced in the rotor due to the attractive and repulsive forces of the magnets.
The brushes in the dc motors are used to conduct current between the fixed part the stator of the motor and the rotating part the Rotor of the motor. As the Rotor is the rotating part in the dc motor so the brushes used to switch the current position to the winding of the rotor.
The commutator in the dc motor used to maintain the torque in the dc motor. The commutator is used to reverse the direction of current in the winding(the Armature) of the dc motor. When the coil moves through the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field the commutator reverse the direction of current to keep the torque in the dc motor.
03: How to control the DC Motors:
The Dc motors can be controlled with the H-Bridge configurations. There are four ways in H-Bridge. Forwards, Reverse stop and block.
Why we use the H-Bridge with dc motors? The dc motors needs current to run with the torque. The micro-controllers have less current amps to run the dc motors or to control motors directly. H-Bridge is used to control the speed PWM of the motor. As Some modules does this job pretty well. Like the L298N H-Bridge module or L293d IC based module. We can also make H-Bridge configuration with simple switches or using transistors.
04: Types of DC Motors:
There are 4 main types of DC motors:
- Permanent magnet DC motors
- Series Dc motors
- Shunt Dc motors
- Compound Dc motors
Permanent Magnet Dc motors:
- The permanent magnet Dc motors uses permanent magnet to create their field flux.
- These dc motors provide great starting torque
- These motors typically found on the low horsepower running applications.
Series Dc motors:
- These types of Dc motors carries large amount of field current because the internal structure of these motors, the armature coil is wounded with few turns of large wire.
- These motors have large amount of starting torque but does not have good regulation speed.
- These type of motors are not good not suitable for Variable dc speed drive applications.
Shunt Dc motors:
- The armature winding is connected with the field in the dc motors
- These types of motors have good speed regulation. Suitable for regulated speed drive applications.
Compound Dc motors:
- These motors have separately excited shunt field. The series and parallel connection of the field winding to the armature.
- These motors have good starting torque but not suitable for variable and regulated drive applications.
05: Applications of the Dc Motors:
There are so many applications of Dc motors. These motors are widely used in dc controlled applications. Some of the applications of the DC motors are as follows:
DC Shunt Motors:
- Lathes machines
- Shaper machines
- Spinning & weaving machines
DC Series Motors:
- Vacuum cleaners
- Air compressors
DC Compound Motors:
- Presses shear machine
- Reciprocating machine
This is the quick tutorial about how and why to use dc motors. We have learned some quick things about dc motors on a simple and easy way. Watch the video on YouTube for more quick tutorials. Subscribe to our channel for quick tutorials and ideas. Keep learning and always have faith on yourself.